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Abstract : Bioactive alloplastic materials are a branch of bone grafts used in bone regeneration and augmentation. EthOss® bone graft and β-TCP are the most common alloplastic materials and are thoroughly researched. This study aimed to compare the biological performance of EthOss®, β-TCP, and spontaneous healing. Each grafting material was used to fill an 8 mm diameter artificial bone defect in the tibia bone of rabbits, a third bone defect in each rabbit where left empty to heal spontaneously. Ten New Zealand White rabbits were used. After a healing period of two months, a histological biopsy where taken to be analyzed under a light microscope. Defects grafted with (β-TCP/CS) showed greater newly formed bone compared to (β-TCP) and the control group. There were statistically significant differences between the three groups (p<0.05). Connective tissue was higher at sites that healed spontaneously (p<0.05) compared to sites treated with (β-TCP/CS) or (β-TCP). At sites that were filled with (β-TCP), the residual graft particles were greater compared to other sites (p<0.05). The artificial bone defects in rabbit tibia bone treated with the novel alloplastic bone graft (β-TCP/CS) displayed good bone growth and biocompatibility after a two-month healing period.