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Abstract : The cognitive-social theory (SCT) is often used as a principle of health behavior change that is influenced by cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of nutrition education based on SCT on self-efficacy, motivation, knowledge, and breakfast practice of female adolescents with anemia in Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi Province. This study used a quasi-experimental method with a pre-post test and control group design. The sample inclusion criteria included female adolescents aged 10-18 years from 4 Junior High Schools. A total of 62 samples were obtained and grouped randomly at the location. The intervention group (n=31) was given a module and nutrition education for 90 minutes with a total of 12 meetings, and the participants' parents were involved in discussions, while the control (n=31) was given 12 types of leaflets every week for 3 months. Questionnaires, Food Frequency, and 24-hour recall (3 days before and after education) were analyzed using the SPSS software with independent-sample T-test, paired-sample T-test, Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney, and Chi-square. There was a significant difference in self-efficacy, motivation, knowledge, and breakfast practice after the administration of nutrition education based on cognitive-social theory in the intervention group (p=0.000). Based on these results, there were differences in these parameters after nutrition education between both groups (p=0.000). Nutrition education based on SCT has a positive effect on changes in self-efficacy, motivation, knowledge, and breakfast practice of anemic adolescents. Furthermore, more support is needed from teachers, parents, and stakeholders in improving the health of adolescents.