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Abstract : It is a gradual malfunction of the retinal vasculature leading in structural damage to the neural retina caused by persistent hyperglycemia. The purpose of this research is to measure the severity of the diabetic retinopathy condition. In Iraqi diabetics, highlight the risk factors associated with this condition. From the 1st of February 2015 to the 31st of May 2015, a descriptive cross-sectional research was undertaken. The data was collected through direct interviews with each diabetic patient who consented to participate after the researcher explained the purpose of the study using a questionnaire form designed specifically for the study by the researcher and supervisor and approved by three senior community specialists. In the current research, 30% of the 250 diabetic patients had diabetic retinopathy (NPDR was present in 18.4% of the patients and PDR was present in 11.2% of the patients). Concerning socio-demographic variables, we discovered a substantial correlation between age and DR. We discovered no difference in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy between men and women. 35% of patients with type 1 DM and 29% of patients with type 2 DM had retinopathy, however this difference is not statistically significant (p value = 0.554g). One-third of the patients in this research developed diabetic retinopathy. Gender, family history of D.M, long duration of diabetes, insulin usage, poorly managed hyperglycemia, presence of systemic hypertension and dyslipidemia, obesity, and physical inactivity were significant risk factors for DR. The findings of the current research indicate that prevention and education are inadequate for many diabetic individuals. The majority of patients in this research did not have routine ocular examinations, and the frequency of DR was greater among these individuals.