Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the proliferation of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. According to the preliminary data, this pathology affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Surgical interventions currently used for endometriosis are associated with moderate efficacy and operational risks, and therefore the implementation of patients' reproductive plans should be approached optimally. Hence, the long-term use of medications before and after the surgery for any form of endometriosis is becoming crucial, but still performing poorly in terms of preventing disease relapses. Low efficiency of surgical and conservative treatment may be the result of an incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis while developing therapeutic strategies. Numerous factors play a significant role in endometriosis progression: invasion of ectopic endometrial tissue, unbalanced cell proliferation, induction of angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis, as well as oxidative stress induction, hormonal desynchronization, and the influence of tumor-stimulating genes and proteins. Thus, the problem of the therapy efficacy for reducing the risk of endometriosis relapses remains an unresolved and relevant issue. In this regard, the goal of this study is to analyze newly patented methods of endometriosis treatment, reflecting modern research in the field of the pathogenesis of the disease. It has been shown that along with traditional methods of hormone therapy, represented by progestins, combined oral contraceptives, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, aromatase inhibitors, selective modulators of estrogen and progesterone receptors, high treatment efficiency can be provided with drugs that affect cell proliferation, inflammation development, ensuring of the antioxidant status and an adhesion and invasion ability of endometrial cells.