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Abstract : The waste sector (solid waste, domestic wastewater, and industrial wastewater) in Palembang City, which is one of the big cities in Indonesia, is still a serious problem. The high rate of waste accumulation and the composition of the waste have an effect on greenhouse gas emissions which can have an impact on health. A descriptive and analytic observational study was conducted to examine the impact of generation rate and composition on GKR emission estimates and public health. The results showed that the waste generation rate in Palembang City in 2022 was 0.72 kg/person/day, there was an increase in the volume of waste from 2010 to 2019. The highest composition of household waste was in the form of organic matter, namely food waste, which increased from 2019 until 2021, namely 51.20%, 55.00% and 56.90%. The estimated result of GHG emissions = 10,680,215.78 kg CH4/year, if this condition is allowed to continue to increase. The high emission of GKR has an impact on public health, which is dangerous for people with asthma, damages lung tissue, respiratory disorders, stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer and can even cause death.