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Abstract : This study aimed to investigate the presence of early childhood caries (ECC) in relation to colony-forming units of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) among preschooler’s children aged 3–6 years old in Syria. The studied sample consisted of 80 children aged between 3-6 years, they were allocated randomly into two groups: Group 1 (experimental, n=40): S-ECC children, deft ≥ 10, and Group 2 (control n=40): free caries children, deft=0. The dental plaque was collected from all mouth using sterilize toothpick, and the dental plaque samples were then transferred to Eppendorf tubes, then the samples were cultured within an hour on petri dishes containing culture medium (MSBA). After 48 hours, the dishes were taken out of the incubator, and the microbial colonies were counted. The results showed that the mean count of mutans streptococci were 7.8*105 in the S-ECC children group and 2.6*105 in free caries children group with a statistically significant difference (p=0.000). The results also showed that the count 3.5 * 105 can be considered as predictive indicator for incidence of early childhood caries. Streptococcus mutans count may play an important role as a predisposing factor for ECC and increase the risk of ECC incidence.