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Abstract : Diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions is an essential part of clinical practice. Oral lesions are relatively common, but doctors may find it difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Proper patient management begins with establishing the correct diagnosis. Therefore, soft tissue biopsy is a crucial diagnostic tool at the histological level. Surgical excision can be performed either with conventional methods such as a scalpel blade and electrocautery, or with various types of lasers, including carbon dioxide lasers, ER: YAG lasers, Nd: YAG lasers, and diode lasers. This study aims to evaluate the microscopic histological changes in the surgical margins when using a 980 nm diode laser. Evaluate the extent of tissue damage caused by a 980 nm diode laser measured in microns, and evaluate each of the following: (pain after biopsy - hemostasis during and after surgery - duration of surgery - clinical healing) when using a 980 nm diode laser and a surgical scalpel. This study included 30 patients (12 males and 18 females) with an average age of 36.73 ± 12.13 who underwent excisional biopsy of the non-keratinized oral mucosa. The study sample was randomly distributed into two groups: (A) the surgical scalpel group, where the lesion was excised with a surgical scalpel, and (B) the laser group, where the lesion was excised with a 980 nm diode laser. The index of pain, bleeding, healing, and time taken for surgery, were evaluated in both groups, in addition to examining the variables caused by the laser biopsy histologically, and evaluating the excision quality between the two groups histologically, in addition to measuring the extent of tissue damage resulting from the thermal effect of the laser. The results showed that pain, bleeding, and the time taken for surgery were less in the diode laser group, but healing time was faster in the surgical scalpel group. While the histological study showed the presence of histological variables in all samples that were excised by laser, and the excision quality was worse in the laser than the surgical scalpel, the average extent of tissue damage in the epithelium tissue was 858.13 microns, while the average extent of tissue damage in the connective tissue was 707.13. Within the limits of this study, the use of a diode laser in excisional biopsies has many advantages over the surgical scalpel. Despite the thermal effect of laser on the tissue, which causes many histological variables; these changes do not hinder the histological reading and the final histological diagnosis.