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Abstract : Varicocele is one of the causes of male infertility that can be corrected surgically. There are several varicocelectomy surgical techniques, including retroperitoneal technique and microsurgical technique. This study aims to compare the sperm parameters improvement and complications between retroperitoneal and microsurgical techniques. This study is a prospective cohort study. Data were taken from the medical records of patients who underwent varicocelectomy surgery from January 2016 to February 2019. A total of 100 patients, with grade 2-3 varicocele, divided evenly into retroperitoneal technique group, and microsurgical technique group. The same surgeon performed the operations. The sperm parameters before and after surgery, postoperative hydrocele, and the degree of postoperative pain were evaluated. There was a significant improvement in postoperative sperm parameters in both techniques. Whereas the results of postoperative sperm parameters between both techniques didn’t show a significant difference. No postoperative hydrocele was found in both techniques. A mild degree of postoperative pain was found in all study subjects in the microsurgical group. Whereas in the retroperitoneal group, mild postoperative pain was found in 11 subjects, and moderate postoperative pain was found in 39 subjects. Varicocelectomy provides a significant improvement in the postoperative sperm parameters. Both techniques provide equal significant improvement in sperm parameters with fewer hydrocele complication events. The microsurgical technique provides a better degree of postoperative pain than retroperitoneal techniques.