Burnout represents a significant occupational problem, particularly in healthcare settings. The problem is even apparent among medical and surgical residents. However, little is known about burnout prevalence in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. To assess the prevalence of burnout and severe burnout among residents and the differences between medical and surgical specialties and other demographic groups. A survey-based study was carried out among residents who were working in Qassim, Saudi Arabia using a convenient, non-probability sampling technique. The 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) for Medical Personnel was used for data collection. Data from 167 residents were analyzed (62.9% males). Burnout and severe burnout were prevalent among 65.9% and 36.5%, respectively. Depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and low levels of personal accomplishment were reported among 62.3%, 45.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Burnout was independently associated with working in two local hospitals, whereas severe burnout was predicted by being a single and working in selected hospitals in Qassim. There was no independent association between medical or surgical specialties and burnout. Burnout was highly prevalent among residents under study. It is necessary to tailor dedicated strategies in specific hospitals to reduce the burnout burden and mitigate its negative consequences.