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Abstract : Hypothermia perfusion can be used as additional therapy to decrease the inflammation of the anterior chamber due to heat generated by phacoemulsification ultrasonic energy. This research is aimed to evaluate the concentration of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in aqueous humor after hypothermic perfusion in phacoemulsification. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits (n=16 eyes) were subjected to phacoemulsification ultrasonic energy with the temperature of perfusion fluid at 400C (treated group) or 2400C (controlled group). Aqueous humor sampling was taken before the phacoemulsification procedure and the first-day post-surgery. Rabbit PGE2 and IL-1β ELISA Kit (Laboratory of Bioassay Technology) was used to examine the levels of PGE2 and IL-1β in aqueous humor. The average levels of PGE2 and IL-1β after the procedure were 464.63 ± 37.87 and 8.93 ± 0.62 pg/ml in the treated group and 490.65 ± 45.19 and 9.56 ± 1.28 pg/ml in the controlled group, respectively. There was no significant difference in the concentration of PGE2 and IL-1β after the treatment between the treated and controlled groups (all p>0.05). The use of hypothermic perfusion has not been shown to reduce anterior chamber inflammation based on PGE2 and IL-1β concentrations in the aqueous humor in the early postoperative phase.